JMW Turner (1775-1851) was an exceptional English painter with a long and varied career. All the artworks left in his studio after his death were given to the nation as the 'Turner Bequest' and it's this enormous collection that can be seen at Tate Britain, along with a small number of works which have been acquired independently, including the Vaughan Bequest. Tate Britain has a whole wing dedicated to the Turner Collection which includes over thirty thousand pencil drawings and watercolours.
The annual Turner Prize is a contemporary art award named after JMW Turner that was set up in 1984 to celebrate new developments in contemporary art. The prize is awarded each year to, "a British artist under fifty for an outstanding exhibition or other presentation of their work in the twelve months preceding".